By Stuart A. Rice, Aaron R. Dinner

The Advances in Chemical Physics series—the innovative of analysis in chemical physics

The Advances in Chemical Physics sequence presents the chemical physics and actual chemistry fields with a discussion board for severe, authoritative reviews of advances in each region of the self-discipline. jam-packed with state-of-the-art examine pronounced in a cohesive demeanour now not discovered in different places within the literature, each one quantity of the Advances in Chemical Physics sequence bargains contributions from the world over popular chemists and serves because the excellent complement to any complex graduate category dedicated to the research of chemical physics.

This quantity explores:

  • regulate of Quantum Phenomena (Constantin Brif, Raj Chakrabarti, and Herschel Rabitz)

  • Crowded fees in Ion Channels (Bob Eisenberg)

  • Colloidal Crystallization among and 3 Dimensions (H. Lowen, E.C. Oguz, L. Assoud, and R. Messina)

  • Statistical Mechanics of drinks and Fluids in Curved area (Gilles Tarjus, FranCois Sausset, and Pascal Viot)


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Extra info for Advances in Chemical Physics, Volume 148

Sample text

For example, modified objective functionals can comprise additional spectral and fluence constraints on the control field [261, 262], take into account nonlinear interactions with the control field [263, 264], deal with time-dependent and time-averaged targets [258, 265–267], and include the final time as a free control parameter [268, 269]. It is also possible to formulate QOCT with time minimization as a control goal (time optimal control) [270–272]. As mentioned earlier, QOCT can also be extended to incorporate optimization of multiple objectives [242–245].

In 2004, Brixner et al. [453] demonstrated that a suitably polarization-shaped laser pulse increased the photoionization yield in K2 beyond that obtained with an optimally shaped linearly polarized laser pulse. This effect is explained by the existence of different multiphoton ionization pathways in the molecule involving dipole transitions that are preferably excited by different polarization directions of the laser field. Suzuki et al. [454] applied AFC with polarization-shaped laser pulses to multiphoton ionization of I2 molecules and optimized the production of oddly and evenly charged molecular ions.

Assume that the Hamiltonian H(t) that governs the dynamics of a closed quantum system through the Schr¨odinger equation (5) is a function of a set of time-dependent controls: H(t) = H(c1 (t), . . , ck (t)). A closed quantum system is called dynamically controllable in a set SD of states if for any pair of states ρ1 ∈ SD and ρ2 ∈ SD there exist a finite time T and a set of controls {c1 (·), . . , ck (·)}, such that the solution U(T ) of the Schr¨odinger equation (5) transforms ρ1 into ρ2 : ρ2 = U(T )ρ1 U † (T ).

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