By W. A. Little (auth.), Blas Cabrera, H. Gutfreund, Vladimir Kresin (eds.)

This quantity, From High-Temperature Superconductivity to Microminiature Refrigeration, used to be compiled as a commemoration to invoice Little's wealthy clinical occupation during the last forty years or extra. He has contributed many seminal rules to such varied fields of physics as phonon physics at low temperatures, magnetic flux quantization in superconductors, high-temperature superconductivity, neural networks, and microminiature fridges. The rrrst element of the publication features a choice of reprints from invoice Little's most vital medical papers. those papers are preceded via an advent through invoice himself, which supplies many insights into the pondering techniques that Ie.

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I I. INTRODUCTION N the forward to Vol. 1 of his monographs on superfluids, F. London' questions whether a superfluid-like state might occur in certain macromolecules which play an important role in biochemical reactions. If this should be the case, an entirely new and important consideration would be added to the problem of understanding living systems. In view of the significance of such an effect, it appears appropriate at this time, when a theory of superconductivity, the BardeenCooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory2 has been so remarkably successful in explaining much of the behavior of superconductors, to examine in the light of this whether or not a superconducting state might occur in certain macromolecules.

1. We will show that by appropriate choice of the molecules which constitute the side chains, the virtual oscillation of charge in these side chains can provide an interaction between the electrons moving in the spine. This can be made a sufficiently attractive interaction so that the superconducting state results. We can show further that even if the spine by itself is initially an insulator due to the valence band being full and the conduction band empty, the addition of side chains can increase the electron-electron attraction to the point where it becomes energetically favorable to enter the superconducting state by mixing in states of the conduction band.

Phy;;. Soc. (London), A, 66, 217. GORTER, C. , TACO:-'-IS, K. :\1. 151. Physica, 17,841. KAPITZA, P. L. Hl. ]. Phys. ), 4,181. KHALAT:'iIKOV, I. 1\1. 1952. ]. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. ), 22, 687. KOLSKY, H. 1953. Stress waves in solids (Oxford University Press, London). KRO:-'-IG, R. and THELLU:'iG, A. 1050. Ph\"sica, 16, 678. MIEDEMA, A. , and STEE:'iLA:'iD, M. )58. Kamerlingh Onnes Conference of Low Temperature Physics. RAYLEIGH, LORD. 1894. , London). STRAXDBERG, M. W. P. 1958. Phys. Rev. 110,65.

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