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1970), Machenhauer and Rasmussen (1972), and Bourke (1972) formulated spectral models with the transform method for barotropic primitive equations, and Machenhauer and Daley (1972), Bourke (1974), and Hoskins and Simmons (1975) for a baroclinic primitive equation model. Bourke (1972) detailed a timing comparison between the interaction coeffi­ cient method and the transform method and showed a significant gain in efficiency in solving barotropic primitive equations by the transform method. D o r o n et al.

G a r y (1969) compared two difference schemes formulated for two grid systems—the equal-area grid of K u r i h a r a and the skipped grid near the poles. Although Gary's objective was to test the two difference schemes used for general circulation studies, he pointed out the need for sufficient grid resolution near the poles for the satisfactory performance of any dif­ ference scheme. Kida (1974) also tested two difference schemes with grid points skipped near the poles and reaffirmed the need for a sufficient grid resolution near the poles.

T h e filtering was performed by Fourier analysis and limited the east-west wavelength of the shortest wave at any latitude to approximately twice the grid increment at the equator. F o r wind velocity, Holloway et al (1973) considered it desirable to transform velocity components onto a polar stereographic projection before Fourier filtering was performed. However, Merilees (1974a) pointed out that Fourier filtering for zonal and meridional velocity components can be performed without transformation onto a stereographic projection.

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