By Tundi S. Agardy

This publication experiences the necessity for marine conservation, summarizes common measures for ocean and coastal conservation, and explains the reason for constructing marine safe parts. the second one 1/2 the e-book is largely a suggestion for designing and imposing secure components with the intention to cause them to workable and long-lasting of their effectiveness.

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In large part, the inability to use marine resources sustainably and control indirect degradation of coastal areas has to do with a worldwide perception that the oceans are a global commons. Although a sense of responsibility for impacts and stewardship for coastal areas in some human communities is strong, competition for ocean space and limited resources undermines this basis for rational use. ^ More and more people are depending on marine sources of protein, and more and more national economies are dependent on coastal and marinebased industry.

3 F R E S H W A T E R D I V E R S I O N IN W A T E R S H E D S The damming of rivers for purposes of irrigation or energy generation can cause the salinity of downstream estuaries to change dramatically. Biodiversity is impacted as a consequence, as only salt-tolerant species are able to continue to utilize the environment. ^^ The impact to the ecology of the coastal area, however, is not confined to the deltaic or estuarine regions. Often, highly productive and important estuaries that act as nursery grounds for fisheries become hypersaline and can no longer support fisheries production.

With a world shipping fleet of 35,000 ships, several thousand different ballast waterborne species may be transported to new habitats each day. Threats to Oceans and Coastal Areas 39 There are many examples of the ecological catastrophes wreaked by such alien species. ^^ Another example can be found in northern Africa, where the opening of the Suez Canal led to the spread of more than 250 species from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. Some of these introduced species, like the Red Sea jellyfish, have displaced local and commercially important species, depressed fish catches, clogged intake pipes of coastal power plants and impacted tourism at Mediterranean beaches.

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