By Sandeep Kumar Shukla, R. Iris Bahar

One of many grand demanding situations within the nano-scopic computing period is promises of robustness. strong computing method layout is faced with quantum actual, probabilistic, or even organic phenomena, and ensuring excessive reliability is way tougher than ever earlier than. Scaling units all the way down to the extent of unmarried electron operation will bring on new demanding situations as a result of probabilistic results and uncertainty in ensuring 'zero-one' dependent computing. Minuscule units suggest billions of units on a unmarried chip, that can support mitigate the problem of uncertainty by way of replication and redundancy. in spite of the fact that, such equipment densities will create a layout and validation nightmare with the shear scale.
The questions that confront laptop engineers concerning the present prestige of nanocomputing fabric and the reliability of platforms outfitted from such miniscule units, are tricky to articulate and resolution. we've got came upon an absence of assets within the confines of a unmarried quantity that at the very least in part makes an attempt to respond to those questions.
We think that this quantity incorporates a great amount of study fabric in addition to new principles that may be very helpful for a few one beginning study within the area of nanocomputing, now not on the machine point, however the difficulties one could face at method point layout and validation whilst nanoscopic physicality might be current on the machine point.

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4 shows the reciprocal lattice space. It can be shown that the energy at the three corners of the Brillouin zone (the smallest volume in the reciprocal vector space such that the total reciprocal space is a periodic repetition of this volume) is zero. 5) 14 NANO, QUANTUM AND MOLECULAR COMPUTING It should be noted that the first three are equivalent and the last three are equivalent since they differ by only the reciprocal lattice vector. Hence we have only two distinct valleys given by (0, ±2π/3).

Also included in the survey are a number of software tools useful for quantifying the reliability of nanocomputing systems in the presence of defects and faults. K. I. ), Nano, Quantum and Molecular Computing, 39-72. © 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 40 NANO, QUANTUM AND MOLECULAR COMPUTING alternatives to existing CMOS silicon technology. Devices and architectures of interest include carbon nanotubes[34], single-electron transistors (SETs)[29], quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA)[47], molecular devices[48], and quantum computing (see Chapter 8), to name just a few.

Nevertheless, the idea of designing systems assuming non-zero defect probabilities in the substrate, has not been common until recently, as researchers consider the use of nanotechnology based devices as switching elements. In current semiconductor manufacturing processes, immediately after a silicon wafer is fabricated, tests are carried out and defective parts are rejected. Manufacturing yield is determined by the percentage of parts that come out without defects. Unfortunately, with silicon-based devices scaled down to a few nanometers, or even newer technologies (such as molecular self-assembled substrates, quantum dot cellular automata type devices, or carbon nanotube based switches), the defect probability will be quite high.

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