By Charles W. Finkl, Christopher Makowski
This university-level reference paintings covers more than a few distant sensing ideas which are helpful for mapping and visualizing benthic environments on continental cabinets. Chapters specialize in overviews of the historical past and way forward for seafloor mapping innovations, cartographical visualisation and conversation of seafloor mapping, and sensible functions of latest applied sciences. Seabed mapping is referenced via high-resolution seismic equipment, sidescan sonar, multibeam bathymetry, satellite tv for pc imagery, LiDAR, acoustic backscatter strategies, and soundscape ecology tracking, use of self sufficient underwater cars, between different tools. The vast breadth of topics during this quantity presents varied insurance of seafloor imaging. This number of glossy seafloor mapping strategies summarizes the cutting-edge equipment for mapping continental shelves.
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Additional resources for Seafloor Mapping along Continental Shelves: Research and Techniques for Visualizing Benthic Environments
The examples of interpreted seafloor environments deduced from LADS bathymetry off the southeast coast of Florida show the value of detailed topographic survey of shelf environments. Every method of seafloor visualization has it pros and cons. No method is perfect for all applications and consequently there exists today a plethora of survey techniques that depend on the goal or purpose of what is attempting to be detected. Scale is an important issue and depends on what is being visualized. Nearshore environments provide a range of opportunities for aerial and satellite visualization but for shipboard techniques that are depth limited, deeper waters are more suitable.
Wiley, Chichester, 314p Bour W, Loubersac L, Rual P (1986) Thematic mapping of reefs by processing of simulated SPOT satellite data: application to the Trochus niloticus biotope on Tetembia Reef (New Caledonia). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 34:243–249 Brock JC, Purkis SJ (2009) The emerging role of Lidar remote sensing in coastal research and resource management. In: Brock J, Purkis S (eds) Coastal applications of airborne lidar. J Coastal Res, Special Issue No. 53:1–5 Bukata RP, Jerome JH, Kondratyev KY, Posdnyakov DV (1995) Optical properties and remote sensing of inland and coastal waters.
Forereef slope 2. Reef gap (including rubble fans) a. Ramp (seaward-sloping accumulations) b. Apron (landward rubble mound) 3. Deepwater reef E. Structural and chemical limestone (karst) bedrock features 1. Karst noye 2. Lineaments, faults, fissures 3. Ridge crests 4. Trough axis F. Cultural features 1. Dredge spoil banks 2. Artificial reefs 3. Beach restoration dredge pits 4. 5 m Sand bodies between reefs South of Bear Cut, Miami South of Biscayne Bay Ridge and valley Elongated basins, probably karst Ridge and valley Ridge and valley Forereef platform NA Shelf break Nearshore reef Ridge crests seaward of basins Fossilized ridge-and-swale topography Terraces seaward of reefs Key Northern limit of Florida Keys NA NA NA Tidal channel Ebb-tidal delta Structurally controlled meanders Vestige of paleovalleys Paleovalleys filled with sand On banks and backreef sand flats Associated with inlets Coral reef Coral reef Coral reef Reef overwash deposit Forereef rubble Reef gap Reef gap ramp Reef overwash deposit Deepwater reef Multiple ridges, partly covered by sand Coral and algal reefs Parabathic series of reefs (first, –7 to –9 m; second, –10 to –14 m; third, –15 to –25 m) Small isolated reef Shore-facing ledge Overwashed rubble Spur and groove Break in reef line Detrital outwash Coral debris Reefs seaward of third reef tract Drowned limestone Drowned solution pits, dolines, sinkholes Sinkhole Lineament Ridge and valley, rock ridge Drowned calcarenite dunes Ridge and valley, structural trough Drowned swale Spoil bank NA Borrow Submerged breakwater Sunken ships, rubble mound structures Dredged spoil NA not applicable b Anastasia Formation, Biscayne Aquifier, Tamiami Formation, Hawthorne Group, upper Floridan aquifier system exposed as hardgrounds to form bottom types.
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